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Thread: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

  1. #1

    Default weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    ok. if you read my last thread i asked to get the festival moved to a different weekend. This is no longer needed, please cancel my request.
    Weekend 1 is good as is
    Next question/help is where to stay. can anyone book a hotel for me
    i have a VIP TICKET for WEEKEND ONE COACHELLA

    thanks

    thanks
    tommy

  2. #2

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    not as epic but this is decent..

  3. #3

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    I will pretend i did not read your reply, as it does not help my quest in any way.
    Can someone please help me, this is a support forum after all

    thanks
    tommy

  4. #4

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    tommy i found you a room but there are no VIP offerings at this hotel. Will this be a problem? There is no champagne or turn down service.

  5. #5

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    what hotel
    price info ++

    thanks
    tommy

  6. #6
    Old Gay Guy gaypalmsprings's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    are you gay or straight?

  7. #7

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    im going to pretend this was real for the rest of my life

  8. #8
    Coachella Junkie heart cooks brain's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    I have a hotel for weekend 2.
    Quote Originally Posted by canexplain View Post
    If moles had subways, molestation wouldn't be one of the creepiest words there is ....
    Quote Originally Posted by canexplain View Post
    Eat don't chat ...When I figure out what windlowless is, I'll respond .
    i hear voices in my head and they keep caaaaallin' me

  9. #9

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    Quote Originally Posted by heart cooks brain View Post
    I have a hotel for weekend 2.
    Ok. Please rebook it to weekend 1 and give me the details for check-in

    thanks
    tommy

  10. #10
    Coachella Junkie heart cooks brain's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    It is only available weekend 2.
    Quote Originally Posted by canexplain View Post
    If moles had subways, molestation wouldn't be one of the creepiest words there is ....
    Quote Originally Posted by canexplain View Post
    Eat don't chat ...When I figure out what windlowless is, I'll respond .
    i hear voices in my head and they keep caaaaallin' me

  11. #11
    Member ApacheRunner's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    book your own hotel room you piece of shit, eat a bag of dicks

  12. #12
    old school kvnty's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    My hotel is really fun, and you're in luck, it's for weekend one.
    Quote Originally Posted by fakekvnty View Post
    All you ladybois want inside this pink slip
    Quote Originally Posted by fakekvnty View Post
    You bitchez will all CUM-ba-ya when y'all see my pee-shooter.
    Follow kvn†y on instagram :: "Lorde is my shepherd. I shall not want."

  13. #13
    old school kvnty's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    Quote Originally Posted by fakekvnty View Post
    All you ladybois want inside this pink slip
    Quote Originally Posted by fakekvnty View Post
    You bitchez will all CUM-ba-ya when y'all see my pee-shooter.
    Follow kvn†y on instagram :: "Lorde is my shepherd. I shall not want."

  14. #14

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    I have a hotel room, but it's only for April 5-7.
    I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. . . . corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.

  15. #15

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    This article is about sleep mostly in humans. For non-human sleep, see Sleep (non-human). For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation).
    "Waking up", "Asleep", and "Slept" redirect here. For other uses, see Waking Up (disambiguation), Asleep (disambiguation), or SLEPT analysis.


    Sleeping child
    Sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by reduced or absent consciousness, relatively suspended sensory activity, and inactivity of nearly all voluntary muscles.[1] It is distinguished from quiet wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, and is more easily reversible than being in hibernation or a coma. Sleep is a heightened anabolic state, accentuating the growth and rejuvenation of the immune, nervous, skeletal and muscular systems. It is observed in all mammals, all birds, and many reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
    The purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially clear and are the subject of substantial research.[2] Sleep is often thought to help conserve energy,[3][4] but decreases metabolism only about 5–10%.[3][4] Hibernating animals need to sleep despite the hypometabolism seen in hibernation, and must return from hypothermia to euthermia in order to sleep, making sleeping "energetically expensive."[5]
    Contents [hide]
    1 Physiology
    1.1 NREM sleep
    1.2 REM sleep
    1.3 Timing
    1.4 Optimal amount in humans
    2 Siesta or nap
    3 Sleep debt
    4 Genetics
    5 Functions
    5.1 Restoration
    5.2 Ontogenesis
    5.3 Memory processing
    5.4 Preservation
    6 Dreaming
    7 Effect of food and drink on sleep
    7.1 Hypnotics
    7.2 Stimulants
    8 Insomnia
    9 Obstructive sleep apnea
    10 Other sleep disorders
    11 Anthropology of sleep
    12 Sleep in other animals
    13 See also
    13.1 Positions, practices, and rituals
    14 References
    15 External links
    Physiology

    In mammals and birds, sleep is divided into two broad types: rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM or non-REM) sleep. Each type has a distinct set of associated physiological and neurological features. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) further divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, and N3, the last of which is also called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep.[6]
    NREM stage 1: This is a stage between sleep and wakefulness. The muscles are active, and the eyes roll slowly, opening and closing moderately.
    NREM stage 2: theta activity In this stage, it gradually becomes harder to awaken the sleeper; in this stage the alpha waves of the previous stage are interrupted by abrupt activity called sleep spindles and K-complexes.[7]
    NREM stage 3: Formerly divided into stages 3 and 4, this stage is called slow-wave sleep (SWS). SWS is initiated in the preoptic area and consists of delta activity, high amplitude waves at less than 3.5 Hz. The sleeper is less responsive to the environment; many environmental stimuli no longer produce any reactions.
    REM: The sleeper now enters rapid eye movement (REM) where most muscles are paralyzed. REM sleep is turned on by acetylcholine secretion and is inhibited by neurons that secrete serotonin. This level is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because the sleeper, although exhibiting EEG waves similar to a waking state, is harder to arouse than at any other sleep stage. Vital signs indicate arousal and oxygen consumption by the brain is higher than when the sleeper is awake.[8] An adult reaches REM approximately every 90 minutes, with the latter half of sleep being more dominated by this stage. The function of REM sleep is uncertain but a lack of it will impair the ability to learn complex tasks. One approach to understanding the role of sleep is to study the deprivation of it.[9] During this period, the EEG pattern returns to high frequency waves which look similar to the waves produced while the person is awake [10]


    Hypnogram showing sleep cycles from midnight to 6.30 am, with deep sleep early on. There is more REM (marked red) before waking.


    30 seconds of deep (stage N3) sleep.


    Screenshot of a PSG of a person in REM sleep. Eye movements highlighted by red box.
    Sleep proceeds in cycles of REM and NREM, usually four or five of them per night, the order normally being N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM. There is a greater amount of deep sleep (stage N3) earlier in the night, while the proportion of REM sleep increases in the two cycles just before natural awakening.
    The stages of sleep were first described in 1937 by Alfred Lee Loomis and his coworkers, who separated the different electroencephalography (EEG) features of sleep into five levels (A to E), which represented the spectrum from wakefulness to deep sleep.[11] In 1953, REM sleep was discovered as distinct, and thus William Dement and Nathaniel Kleitman reclassified sleep into four NREM stages and REM.[12] The staging criteria were standardized in 1968 by Allan Rechtschaffen and Anthony Kales in the "R&K sleep scoring manual."[13] In the R&K standard, NREM sleep was divided into four stages, with slow-wave sleep comprising stages 3 and 4. In stage 3, delta waves made up less than 50% of the total wave patterns, while they made up more than 50% in stage 4. Furthermore, REM sleep was sometimes referred to as stage 5.
    In 2004, the AASM commissioned the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force to review the R&K scoring system. The review resulted in several changes, the most significant being the combination of stages 3 and 4 into Stage N3. The revised scoring was published in 2007 as The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events.[14] Arousals and respiratory, cardiac, and movement events were also added.[15][16]
    Sleep stages and other characteristics of sleep are commonly assessed by polysomnography in a specialized sleep laboratory. Measurements taken include EEG of brain waves, electrooculography (EOG) of eye movements, and electromyography (EMG) of skeletal muscle activity. In humans, the average length of the first sleep cycle is approximately 90 minutes and 100 to 120 minutes from the second to the fourth cycle, which is usually the last one.[17] Each stage may have a distinct physiological function and this can result in sleep that exhibits loss of consciousness but does not fulfill its physiological functions (i.e., one may still feel tired after apparently sufficient sleep).
    Scientific studies on sleep have shown that sleep stage at awakening is an important factor in amplifying sleep inertia. Alarm clocks involving sleep stage monitoring appeared on the market in 2005.[18] Using sensing technologies such as EEG electrodes or accelerometers, these alarm clocks are supposed to wake people only from light sleep.
    NREM sleep
    Main article: Non-rapid eye movement sleep
    According to 2007 AASM standards, NREM consists of three stages. There is relatively little dreaming in NREM.
    Stage N1 refers to the transition of the brain from alpha waves having a frequency of 8–13 Hz (common in the awake state) to theta waves having a frequency of 4–7 Hz. This stage is sometimes referred to as somnolence or drowsy sleep. Sudden twitches and hypnic jerks, also known as positive myoclonus, may be associated with the onset of sleep during N1. Some people may also experience hypnagogic hallucinations during this stage. During N1, the subject loses some muscle tone and most conscious awareness of the external environment.
    Stage N2 is characterized by sleep spindles ranging from 11 to 16 Hz (most commonly 12–14 Hz) and K-complexes. During this stage, muscular activity as measured by EMG decreases, and conscious awareness of the external environment disappears. This stage occupies 45–55% of total sleep in adults.
    Stage N3 (deep or slow-wave sleep) is characterized by the presence of a minimum of 20% delta waves ranging from 0.5–2 Hz and having a peak-to-peak amplitude >75 μV. (EEG standards define delta waves to be from 0 to 4 Hz, but sleep standards in both the original R&K, as well as the new 2007 AASM guidelines have a range of 0.5–2 Hz.) This is the stage in which parasomnias such as night terrors, nocturnal enuresis, sleepwalking, and somniloquy occur. Many illustrations and descriptions still show a stage N3 with 20–50% delta waves and a stage N4 with greater than 50% delta waves; these have been combined as stage N3.
    REM sleep
    Main article: Rapid eye movement sleep
    Rapid eye movement sleep, or REM sleep (also known as paradoxical sleep),[19] accounts for 20–25% of total sleep time in most human adults. The criteria for REM sleep include rapid eye movements as well as a rapid low-voltage EEG. During REM sleep, EEG patterns returns to higher frequency saw-tooth waves. Most memorable dreaming occurs in this stage. At least in mammals, a descending muscular atonia is seen. Such paralysis may be necessary to protect organisms from self-damage through physically acting out scenes from the often-vivid dreams that occur during this stage.[citation needed]
    Timing


    The human "biological clock"
    Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock, sleep-wake homeostasis, and in humans, within certain bounds, willed behavior. The circadian clock—an inner timekeeping, temperature-fluctuating, enzyme-controlling device—works in tandem with adenosine, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many of the bodily processes associated with wakefulness. Adenosine is created over the course of the day; high levels of adenosine lead to sleepiness.[20] In diurnal animals, sleepiness occurs as the circadian element causes the release of the hormone melatonin and a gradual decrease in core body temperature. The timing is affected by one's chronotype. It is the circadian rhythm that determines the ideal timing of a correctly structured and restorative sleep episode.[21]
    Homeostatic sleep propensity (the need for sleep as a function of the amount of time elapsed since the last adequate sleep episode) must be balanced against the circadian element for satisfactory sleep.[22] Along with corresponding messages from the circadian clock, this tells the body it needs to sleep.[23] Sleep offset (awakening) is primarily determined by circadian rhythm. A person who regularly awakens at an early hour will generally not be able to sleep much later than his or her normal waking time, even if moderately sleep-deprived.
    Sleep duration is affected by the gene DEC2. Some people have a mutation of this gene; they sleep two hours less than normal. Neurology professor Ying-Hui Fu and her colleagues bred mice that carried the DEC2 mutation and slept less than normal mice.[24][25]
    Optimal amount in humans
    See also: Circadian rhythm#Biological markers
    Adult


    "Drowsiness" by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega.
    The optimal amount of sleep is not a meaningful concept unless the timing of that sleep is seen in relation to an individual's circadian rhythms. A person's major sleep episode is relatively inefficient and inadequate when it occurs at the "wrong" time of day; one should be asleep at least six hours before the lowest body temperature.[26] The timing is correct when the following two circadian markers occur after the middle of the sleep episode and before awakening:[27] maximum concentration of the hormone melatonin, and minimum core body temperature.
    Human sleep needs can vary by age and among individuals, and sleep is considered to be adequate when there is no daytime sleepiness or dysfunction. Moreover, self-reported sleep duration is only moderately correlated with actual sleep time as measured by actigraphy,[28] and those affected with sleep state misperception may typically report having slept only four hours despite having slept a full eight hours.[29]
    A University of California, San Diego psychiatry study of more than one million adults found that people who live the longest self-report sleeping for six to seven hours each night.[30] Another study of sleep duration and mortality risk in women showed similar results.[31] Other studies show that "sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality," though this study suggests the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status, which would correlate statistically.[32] It has been suggested that the correlation between lower sleep hours and reduced morbidity only occurs with those who wake naturally, rather than those who use an alarm.


    Main health effects of sleep deprivation,[33] indicating impairment of normal maintenance by sleep
    Researchers at the University of Warwick and University College London have found that lack of sleep can more than double the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, but that too much sleep can also be associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not primarily from cardiovascular disease.[34][35] Professor Francesco Cappuccio said, "Short sleep has been shown to be a risk factor for weight gain, hypertension, and Type 2 diabetes, sometimes leading to mortality; but in contrast to the short sleep-mortality association, it appears that no potential mechanisms by which long sleep could be associated with increased mortality have yet been investigated. Some candidate causes for this include depression, low socioeconomic status, and cancer-related fatigue... In terms of prevention, our findings indicate that consistently sleeping around seven hours per night is optimal for health, and a sustained reduction may predispose to ill health."
    Furthermore, sleep difficulties are closely associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, alcoholism, and bipolar disorder.[36] Up to 90% of adults with depression are found to have sleep difficulties. Dysregulation found on EEG includes disturbances in sleep continuity, decreased delta sleep and altered REM patterns with regard to latency, distribution across the night and density of eye movements.[37]
    Hours by age
    Children need more sleep per day in order to develop and function properly: up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as a child ages.[23] A newborn baby spends almost 9 hours a day in REM sleep. By the age of five or so, only slightly over two hours is spent in REM. Studies say that school age children need about 10 to 11 hours of sleep.[38]
    Age and condition Sleep Needs
    Newborns (0–2 months) 12 to 18 hours[39]
    Infants (3–11 months) 14 to 15 hours[39]
    Toddlers (1–3 years) 12 to 14 hours[39]
    Preschoolers (3–5 years) 11 to 13 hours[39]
    School-age children (5–10 years) 10 to 11 hours[39]
    Adolescents (10–17 years) 8.5 to 9.25 hours[39][40]
    Adults, including elderly 7 to 9 hours[39]
    Siesta or nap



    People sleeping in a train at night
    The siesta habit has recently been associated with a 37% reduction in coronary mortality, possibly due to reduced cardiovascular stress mediated by daytime sleep.[41] Nevertheless, epidemiological studies on the relations between cardiovascular health and siesta have led to conflicting conclusions, possibly because of poor control of moderator variables, such as physical activity. It is possible that people who take a siesta have different physical activity habits, e.g., waking earlier and scheduling more activity during the morning. Such differences in physical activity may mediate different 24-hour profiles in cardiovascular function. Even if such effects of physical activity can be discounted for explaining the relationship between siesta and cardiovascular health, it is still unknown whether it is the daytime nap itself, a supine posture or the expectancy of a nap that is the most important factor. It was recently suggested that a short nap can reduce stress and blood pressure (BP), with the main changes in BP occurring between the time of lights off and the onset of stage 1.[42][43]
    Dr. Zaregarizi and his team have concluded that the acute time of falling asleep was where beneficial cardiovascular changes take place. This study has indicated that a large decline in blood pressure occurs during the daytime sleep-onset period only when sleep is expected however when subjects rest in a supine position, the same reduction in blood pressure is not observed. This blood pressure reduction may be associated with the lower coronary mortality rates seen in Mediterranean and Latin American populations where siestas are common. Dr. Zaregarizi assessed cardiovascular function (blood pressure, heart rate, and measurements of blood vessel dilation) while nine healthy volunteers, 34 years of age on average, spent an hour standing quietly; reclining at rest but not sleeping; or reclining to nap. All participants were restricted to 4 hours of sleep on the night prior to each of the sleep laboratory tests. During the three phases of daytime sleep, he noted significant reductions in blood pressure and heart rate. By contrast, they did not observe changes in cardiovascular function while the participants were standing or reclining at rest. These findings also show that the greatest decline in blood pressure occurs between lights-off and onset of daytime sleep itself.
    During this sleep period, which lasted 9.7 minutes on average, blood pressure decreased, while blood vessel dilation increased by more than 9 percent.
    “There is little change in blood pressure once a subject is actually asleep," Dr. Zaregarizi noted, and he found minor changes in blood vessel dilation during sleep.[42][43]
    Kaul et al. found that sleep duration in long-term experienced meditators was lower than in non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent decrements in vigilance.[44]
    Sleep debt

    Main article: Sleep debt
    Sleep debt is the effect of not getting enough sleep; a large debt causes mental, emotional and physical fatigue.
    Sleep debt results in diminished abilities to perform high-level cognitive functions. Neurophysiological and functional imaging studies have demonstrated that frontal regions of the brain are particularly responsive to homeostatic sleep pressure.[45]
    Scientists do not agree on how much sleep debt it is possible to accumulate; whether it is accumulated against an individual's average sleep or some other benchmark; nor on whether the prevalence of sleep debt among adults has changed appreciably in the industrialized world in recent decades. It is likely that children are sleeping less than previously in Western societies.[46]
    Genetics

    It is theorized that a considerable amount of sleep-related behavior, such as when and how long a person needs to sleep, is regulated by genetics. Researchers have discovered some evidence that seems to support this assumption.[47] ABCC9 is one gene found which influences the duration of human sleep.[48]
    Functions



    A Kutchi woman sleeping
    Further information: Neuroscience of sleep#Sleep function
    The multiple theories proposed to explain the function of sleep reflect the incomplete understanding of the subject. (When asked, after 50 years of research, what he knew about the reason people sleep, William Dement, founder of Stanford University's Sleep Research Center, answered, "As far as I know, the only reason we need to sleep that is really, really solid is because we get sleepy.")[49] It is likely that sleep evolved to fulfill some primeval function and took on multiple functions over time[citation needed] (analogous to the larynx, which controls the passage of food and air, but descended over time to develop speech capabilities).
    If sleep were not essential, one would expect to find:
    Animal species that do not sleep at all
    Animals that do not need recovery sleep when they stay awake longer than usual
    Animals that suffer no serious consequences as a result of lack of sleep
    Outside of a few basal animals that have no brain or a very simple one, no animals have been found to date that satisfy any of these criteria.[50] While some varieties of shark, such as great whites and hammerheads, must remain in motion at all times to move oxygenated water over their gills, it is possible they still sleep one cerebral hemisphere at a time as marine mammals do. However it remains to be shown definitively whether any fish is capable of unihemispheric sleep.
    Some of the many proposed functions of sleep are as follows:
    Restoration
    Wound healing has been shown to be affected by sleep. A study conducted by Gumustekin et al.[51] in 2004 shows sleep deprivation hindering the healing of burns on rats.
    It has been shown that sleep deprivation affects the immune system. In a study by Zager et al. in 2007,[52] rats were deprived of sleep for 24 hours. When compared with a control group, the sleep-deprived rats' blood tests indicated a 20% decrease in white blood cell count, a significant change in the immune system. It is now possible to state that "sleep loss impairs immune function and immune challenge alters sleep," and it has been suggested that mammalian species which invest in longer sleep times are investing in the immune system, as species with the longer sleep times have higher white blood cell counts.[53] Sleep has also been theorized to effectively combat the accumulation of free radicals in the brain, by increasing the efficiency of endogeneous antioxidant mechanisms.[54]
    The effect of sleep duration on somatic growth is not completely known. One study by Jenni et al.[55] in 2007 recorded growth, height, and weight, as correlated to parent-reported time in bed in 305 children over a period of nine years (age 1–10). It was found that "the variation of sleep duration among children does not seem to have an effect on growth." It has been shown that sleep—more specifically, slow-wave sleep (SWS)—does affect growth hormone levels in adult men. During eight hours' sleep, Van Cauter, Leproult, and Plat[56] found that the men with a high percentage of SWS (average 24%) also had high growth hormone secretion, while subjects with a low percentage of SWS (average 9%) had low growth hormone secretion.
    There are multiple arguments supporting the restorative function of sleep. The metabolic phase during sleep is anabolic; anabolic hormones such as growth hormones (as mentioned above) are secreted preferentially during sleep. The duration of sleep among species is, in general, inversely related to animal size[citation needed] and directly related to basal metabolic rate. Rats with a very high basal metabolic rate sleep for up to 14 hours a day, whereas elephants and giraffes with lower BMRs sleep only 3–4 hours per day.
    Energy conservation could as well have been accomplished by resting quiescent without shutting off the organism from the environment, potentially a dangerous situation. A sedentary nonsleeping animal is more likely to survive predators, while still preserving energy. Sleep, therefore, seems to serve another purpose, or other purposes, than simply conserving energy; for example, hibernating animals waking up from hibernation go into rebound sleep because of lack of sleep during the hibernation period. They are definitely well-rested and are conserving energy during hibernation, but need sleep for something else.[5] Rats kept awake indefinitely develop skin lesions, hyperphagia, loss of body mass, hypothermia, and, eventually, fatal sepsis.[57]


    Infants spend most of their time sleeping, and most of that sleep is REM sleep.
    Ontogenesis
    According to the ontogenetic hypothesis of REM sleep, the activity occurring during neonatal REM sleep (or active sleep) seems to be particularly important to the developing organism (Marks et al., 1995). Studies investigating the effects of deprivation of active sleep have shown that deprivation early in life can result in behavioral problems, permanent sleep disruption, decreased brain mass (Mirmiran et al., 1983), and an abnormal amount of neuronal cell death.[58]
    REM sleep appears to be important for development of the brain. REM sleep occupies the majority of time of sleep of infants, who spend most of their time sleeping. Among different species, the more immature the baby is born, the more time it spends in REM sleep. Proponents also suggest that REM-induced muscle inhibition in the presence of brain activation exists to allow for brain development by activating the synapses, yet without any motor consequences that may get the infant in trouble. Additionally, REM deprivation results in developmental abnormalities later in life.
    However, this does not explain why older adults still need REM sleep. Aquatic mammal infants do not have REM sleep in infancy;[59] REM sleep in those animals increases as they age.
    Memory processing
    Further information: Sleep and learning, Sleep and creativity, and Sleep and memory
    Scientists have shown numerous ways in which sleep is related to memory. In a study conducted by Turner, Drummond, Salamat, and Brown,[60] working memory was shown to be affected by sleep deprivation. Working memory is important because it keeps information active for further processing and supports higher-level cognitive functions such as decision making, reasoning, and episodic memory. The study allowed 18 women and 22 men to sleep only 26 minutes per night over a four-day period. Subjects were given initial cognitive tests while well-rested, and then were tested again twice a day during the four days of sleep deprivation. On the final test, the average working memory span of the sleep-deprived group had dropped by 38% in comparison to the control group.
    The relation between working memory and sleep can also be explored by testing how working memory works during sleep. Daltrozzo, Claude, Tillmann, Bastuji, Perrin,[61] using Event-Related Potentials to the perception of sentences during sleep showed that working memory for linguistic information is partially preserved during sleep with a smaller capacity compared to wake.
    Memory seems to be affected differently by certain stages of sleep such as REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In one study,[62] multiple groups of human subjects were used: wake control groups and sleep test groups. Sleep and wake groups were taught a task and were then tested on it, both on early and late nights, with the order of nights balanced across participants. When the subjects' brains were scanned during sleep, hypnograms revealed that SWS was the dominant sleep stage during the early night, representing around 23% on average for sleep stage activity. The early-night test group performed 16% better on the declarative memory test than the control group. During late-night sleep, REM became the most active sleep stage at about 24%, and the late-night test group performed 25% better on the procedural memory test than the control group. This indicates that procedural memory benefits from late, REM-rich sleep, whereas declarative memory benefits from early, SWS-rich sleep.
    A study conducted by Datta[63] indirectly supports these results. The subjects chosen were 22 male rats. A box was constructed wherein a single rat could move freely from one end to the other. The bottom of the box was made of a steel grate. A light would shine in the box accompanied by a sound. After a five-second delay, an electrical shock would be applied. Once the shock commenced, the rat could move to the other end of the box, ending the shock immediately. The rat could also use the five-second delay to move to the other end of the box and avoid the shock entirely. The length of the shock never exceeded five seconds. This was repeated 30 times for half the rats. The other half, the control group, was placed in the same trial, but the rats were shocked regardless of their reaction. After each of the training sessions, the rat would be placed in a recording cage for six hours of polygraphic recordings. This process was repeated for three consecutive days. This study found that during the posttrial sleep recording session, rats spent 25.47% more time in REM sleep after learning trials than after control trials. These trials support the results of the Born et al. study, indicating an obvious correlation between REM sleep and procedural knowledge.
    An observation of the Datta study is that the learning group spent 180% more time in SWS than did the control group during the post-trial sleep-recording session. This phenomenon is supported by a study performed by Kudrimoti, Barnes, and McNaughton.[64] This study shows that after spatial exploration activity, patterns of hippocampal place cells are reactivated during SWS following the experiment. In a study by Kudrimoti et al., seven rats were run through a linear track using rewards on either end. The rats would then be placed in the track for 30 minutes to allow them to adjust (PRE), then they ran the track with reward-based training for 30 minutes (RUN), and then they were allowed to rest for 30 minutes. During each of these three periods, EEG data were collected for information on the rats' sleep stages. Kudrimoti et al. computed the mean firing rates of hippocampal place cells during prebehavior SWS (PRE) and three ten-minute intervals in postbehavior SWS (POST) by averaging across 22 track-running sessions from seven rats. The results showed that ten minutes after the trial RUN session, there was a 12% increase in the mean firing rate of hippocampal place cells from the PRE level; however, after 20 minutes, the mean firing rate returned rapidly toward the PRE level. The elevated firing of hippocampal place cells during SWS after spatial exploration could explain why there were elevated levels of SWS sleep in Datta's study, as it also dealt with a form of spatial exploration.
    A study has also been done involving direct current stimulation to the prefrontal cortex to increase the amount of slow oscillations during SWSfe. The direct current stimulation greatly enhanced word-pair retention the following day, giving evidence that SWS plays a large role in the consolidation of episodic memories.[65]
    The different studies all suggest that there is a correlation between sleep and the complex functions of memory. Harvard sleep researchers Saper[66] and Stickgold[67] point out that an essential part of memory and learning consists of nerve cell dendrites' sending of information to the cell body to be organized into new neuronal connections. This process demands that no external information is presented to these dendrites, and it is suggested that this may be why it is during sleep that memories and knowledge are solidified and organized.
    Preservation
    The "Preservation and Protection" theory holds that sleep serves an adaptive function. It protects the animal during that portion of the 24-hour day in which being awake, and hence roaming around, would place the individual at greatest risk.[68] Organisms do not require 24 hours to feed themselves and meet other necessities. From this perspective of adaptation, organisms are safer by staying out of harm's way, where potentially they could be prey to other, stronger organisms. They sleep at times that maximize their safety, given their physical capacities and their habitats.
    This theory fails to explain why the brain disengages from the external environment during normal sleep. However, the brain consumes a large proportion of the body's calories at any one time and preservation of energy could only occur by limiting its sensory inputs. Another argument against the theory is that sleep is not simply a passive consequence of removing the animal from the environment, but is a "drive"; animals alter their behaviors in order to obtain sleep. Therefore, circadian regulation is more than sufficient to explain periods of activity and quiescence that are adaptive to an organism, but the more peculiar specializations of sleep probably serve different and unknown functions. Moreover, the preservation theory needs to explain why carnivores like lions, which are on top of the food chain and thus have little to fear, sleep the most. It has been suggested that they need to minimize energy expenditure when not hunting.
    Preservation also does not explain why aquatic mammals sleep while moving. Quiescence during these vulnerable hours would do the same and would be more advantageous, because the animal would still be able to respond to environmental challenges like predators, etc. Sleep rebound that occurs after a sleepless night will be maladaptive, but obviously must occur for a reason. A zebra falling asleep the day after it spent the sleeping time running from a lion is more, not less, vulnerable to predation.
    Quote Originally Posted by TickleMeElmo View Post
    Coachella will come out of the closet announcing it's gay. Most will applaud it while some will sell their passes.

  16. #16
    Member ELIZA83TH's Avatar
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    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    Tommy,

    It looks as if you might have possibly lost your mind. Unfortunately, you won't find it in or around Coachella. I suggest you stay home & try reading a book. Now, if you never had any common sense to begin with, then simply go back to that rock you were hiding under & pretend this never happened… for your sake.

    Sincerely,
    Thanks for the Laughs
    Last edited by ELIZA83TH; 02-11-2013 at 11:33 AM.

  17. #17

    Default Re: weekend 1 secure, but where to sleep

    Quote Originally Posted by tommybrand View Post
    I will pretend i did not read your reply, as it does not help my quest in any way.
    Can someone please help me, this is a support forum after all
    I shall help thee with thy noble quest.


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