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Thread: The Science/Science News Thread.

  1. #61
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    It wouldn't be quite the same, but there could be a new message board forum called Board Suppleness.

  2. #62
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    'Hundreds of worlds' in Milky Way

    Scientists say there may be many more worlds in our solar system
    Rocky planets, possibly with conditions suitable for life, may be more common than previously thought in our galaxy, a study has found.

    New evidence suggests more than half the Sun-like stars in the Milky Way could have similar planetary systems.

    There may also be hundreds of undiscovered worlds in outer parts of our Solar System, astronomers believe.

    Future studies of such worlds will radically alter our understanding of how planets are formed, they say.

    New findings about planets were presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Boston.

    Nasa telescope

    Michael Meyer, an astronomer from the University of Arizona, said he believes Earth-like planets are probably very common around Sun-like stars.


    I expect that we will find a very large number of planets
    Alan Stern
    Nasa

    "Our observations suggest that between 20% and 60% of Sun-like stars have evidence for the formation of rocky planets not unlike the processes we think led to planet Earth," he said.

    "That is very exciting."

    Mr Meyer's team used the US space agency's Spitzer space telescope to look at groups of stars with masses similar to the Sun.

    They detected discs of cosmic dust around stars in some of the youngest groups surveyed.

    The dust is believed to be a by-product of rocky debris colliding and merging to form planets.

    Nasa's Kepler mission to search for Earth-sized and smaller planets, due to be launched next year, is expected to reveal more clues about these distant undiscovered worlds.

    Frozen worlds

    Some astronomers believe there may be hundreds of small rocky bodies in the outer edges of our own Solar System, and perhaps even a handful of frozen Earth-sized worlds.


    We have to find the right mass planet and it has to be at the right distance from the star
    Debra Fischer
    San Francisco State University

    Speaking at the AAAS, Nasa's Alan Stern said he believes we have found only the tip of the iceberg in terms of planets within our own Solar System.

    More than a thousand objects had already been discovered in the Kuiper belt alone, he said, many rivalling the planet Pluto in size.

    "Our old view, that the Solar System had nine planets will be supplanted by a view that there are hundreds if not thousands of planets in our Solar System," he told BBC News.

    He believes many of these planets will be icy, some will be rocky, and there may even be objects the same mass as Earth.

    "It could be that there are objects of Earth mass in the oort cloud (a cloud surrounding our planetary system) but they would be frozen at these distances," Mr Stern added.

    "They would look like a frozen Earth."

    Goldilocks zone

    Excitement about finding other Earth-like planets is driven by the idea that some might contain life or perhaps, centuries from now, allow human colonies to be set up on them.

    The key to this search, said Debra Fischer of San Francisco State University, California, was the Goldilocks zone.

    This refers to an area of space in which a planet is just the right distance from its parent star so that its surface is not-too-hot or not-too-cold to support liquid water.

    "To my mind there are two things we have to go after; we have to find the right mass planet and it has to be at the right distance from the star," she said.

    The AAAS meeting concludes on Monday.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7249884.stm
    Quote Originally Posted by TeamCoachellaHellYeah View Post
    this is fantastic news...we can all fist ourselves in peace now...
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    This thread is beginning to make all my nightmares come true.



    I love it.

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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    From Wired:

    Physicist Neil Turok: Big Bang Wasn't the Beginning

    Follow link for interview.

    For decades, physicists have accepted the notion that the universe started with the Big Bang, an explosive event at the literal beginning of time. Now, computational physicist Neil Turok is challenging that model -- and some scientists are taking him seriously.

    According to Turok, who teaches at Cambridge University, the Big Bang represents just one stage in an infinitely repeated cycle of universal expansion and contraction. Turok theorizes that neither time nor the universe has a beginning or end.

    It's a strange idea, though Turok would say it's no stranger than the standard explanation of the Big Bang: a singular point that defies our laws of physics, where all equations go to infinity and "all the properties we normally use to describe the universe and its contents just fail." That inconsistency led Turok to see if the Big Bang could be explained within the framework of string theory, a controversial and so-far untested explanation of the universe as existing in at least 10 dimensions and being formed from one-dimensional building blocks called strings. Within a school of string theory known as m-theory, Turok said, "the seventh extra dimension of space is the gap between two parallel objects called branes. It's like the gap between two parallel mirrors. We thought, What happens if these two mirrors collide? Maybe that was the Big Bang."

    Turok's proposition has drawn condemnation from string theory's many critics and even opposition from the Catholic Church. But it's provoked acclaim and wonder, too: He and Princeton University physicist Paul Steinhardt published Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang last year, and Turok -- also the founder of the South Africa-based African Institute for Mathematical Sciences -- won 2008's first annual TED Prize, awarded to the world's most innovative thinkers.

    Turok spoke with Wired.com about the Big Bang, the intellectual benefits of cosmology and his bet with Stephen Hawking.
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    http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080218/sc_nm/frog_devil_dc

    Ancient "devil frog" may have eaten baby dinosaurs
    By Will Dunham




    Mon Feb 18, 5:03 PM ET
    WASHINGTON (Reuters) - It was the biggest, baddest, meanest froggy ever to have hopped on Earth.

    Scientists on Monday announced the discovery in northwestern Madagascar of a bulky amphibian dubbed the "devil frog" that lived 65 million to 70 million years ago and was so nasty it may have eaten newborn dinosaurs.

    This brute was larger than any frog living today and may be the biggest frog ever to have existed, according to paleontologist David Krause of Stony Brook University in Stony Brook, New York, one of the scientists who found the remains.

    Its name, Beelzebufo ampinga, came from Beelzebub, the Greek for devil, and bufo -- Latin for toad. Ampinga means "shield," named for an armor-like part of its anatomy.

    Beelzebufo (pronounced bee-el-zeh-BOOF-oh) was 16 inches

    long and weighed an estimated 10 pounds (4.5 kg).

    It was powerfully built and possessed a very wide mouth and powerful jaws. It probably didn't dine daintily.

    "It's not outside the realm of possibility that Beelzebufo took down lizards and mammals and smaller frogs, and even -- considering its size -- possibly hatchling dinosaurs," Krause said in a telephone interview.

    "It would have been quite mean," added paleontologist Susan Evans of University College London, another of the scientists.

    Their findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Even though it lived far away, Beelzebufo appears to be closely related to a group of frogs that live today in South America, the scientists said. They are nicknamed "Pac-Man" frogs due to their huge mouths. Some have little horns on their heads, and the scientists think Beelzebufo also may have had horns -- a fitting touch for the "devil frog."

    Beelzebufo was bigger than any of its South American kin or any other living frog -- "as if it was on steroids," Krause said. The largest one today is the goliath frog of West Africa, up to 12.5 inches long and 7.2 pounds (3.3 kg).

    The presence of Beelzebufo in Madagascar and its modern relatives in South America is the latest sign a long-lost land bridge once may have linked Madagascar to Antarctica -- much warmer then -- and South America, the scientists said.

    That would have let animals move overland among those land masses. Fossils have been found of other animals in Madagascar from Beelzebufo's time similar to South American ones.

    KING OF FROGS

    The first frogs appeared about 180 million years ago, and their basic body plan has remained unchanged. Beelzebufo lived during the Cretaceous Period at the end of the age of dinosaurs, which went extinct along with many other types of animals 65 million years ago when a huge space rock clobbered Earth.

    Beelzebufo did not live an aquatic lifestyle, hopping among lily pads, the scientists said. Instead, it lived in a semi-arid environment and may have hunted like its modern-day relatives, which camouflage themselves and jump out at prey.

    Its first fragmentary fossils were found in 1993, and the scientists have since assembled enough fragments to piece its remains together like a jigsaw puzzle, Krause said.

    While it was the king of frogs, Beelzebufo is not the largest amphibian ever to have lived. Many reached truly astounding dimensions, such as the crocodile-like Prionosuchus that grew to an estimated 30 feet during the Permian Period, which ended about 250 million years ago.

  6. #66
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    Revealed: Secrets of the Camouflage Masters
    (link to article with video)

    WOODS HOLE, Mass. — The cuttlefish in Roger Hanlon’s laboratory were in fine form. Their skin was taking on new colors and patterns faster than the digital signs in Times Square.

    Dr. Hanlon inspected the squidlike animals as he walked past their shallow tubs, stopping from time to time to ask, “Whoa, did you see that?”

    One cuttlefish added a pair of eye spots to its back, a strategy cuttlefish use to fool predators. The spots lingered a few seconds, then vanished.

    When Dr. Hanlon stuck his finger into another tub, three squirrel-size cuttlefish turned to chocolate, and one streaked its back and arms with wavy white stripes.

    “Look at the pattern on that guy,” he said with a smile as they lunged for his finger.

    In other tubs, the cuttlefish put on subtler but no less sophisticated displays. Dr. Hanlon’s students had put sand in some tubs, and there the cuttlefish assumed a smooth beige. On top of gravel, their skins were busy fields of light and dark.

    Dr. Hanlon likes to see how far he can push their powers of camouflage. He sometimes put black and white checkerboards in the tubs. The cuttlefish respond by forming astonishingly sharp-edged blocks of white.

    “We can give them any hideous background,” he said, “and they will try to camouflage.”

    Cuttlefish and their relatives octopus and squid are the world’s camouflage champions. But Dr. Hanlon and his colleagues have just a rough understanding of how these animals, collectively known as cephalopods, disguise themselves so well.

    Dr. Hanlon, a senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory here, has spent much of the last three decades studying them in his laboratory and on thousands of ocean dives. He said he believed that he finally had a theory for how they achieve their magic.

    In fact, he said it could account for all the camouflage patterns made by animals like katydids and pandas. For all the variety in the world of camouflage, there may be a limited number of ways to fool the eye.

    Dr. Hanlon’s scientific career was a foregone conclusion. At age 18, he took his first dive in Panama and spotted an octopus hiding on a coral reef. After serving as an Army lieutenant for two years, he entered graduate school at the University of Miami, where he began to study cephalopod camouflage.

    He has spent much of his career underwater, swimming around coastal reefs and rocky coastal waters from the Caribbean to South Africa to Australia.

    Typically, Dr. Hanlon and his colleagues follow a single cephalopod, filming for hours as it shifts its skin. On some dives, Dr. Hanlon uses a spectrometer to obtain precise measurements of the light in the water and the reflections from the animal. The tedium is interrupted now and then by acts of spectacular deception. Cephalopods do not just mimic the colors of the sea floor or coral reefs. Sometimes, they make their arms flat and crinkled and wave them like seaweed.

    Dr. Hanlon has watched octopuses perform what he calls the Moving Rock Trick. They assume the shape of a rock and move in plain sight across the sea floor. But they move no faster than the ripples of light around them, so they never seem to move.

    Dr. Hanlon’s jaw-dropping footage has appeared on a number of documentaries. One pirated segment has wound up on YouTube, where it has been viewed hundreds of thousands of times.

    Dr. Hanlon approaches normal-looking coral at Grand Cayman Island. When he is a few inches away, half the coral suddenly becomes smooth and white. An eye pops open, and an octopus that has been clinging to the coral shoots away.

    Despite thousands of dives, Dr. Hanlon still considers himself a novice in spotting cephalopods. Once, after following an octopus for an hour and a half, he looked away a moment to switch cameras. When he looked back, the animal was gone.

    He and his colleagues swam for 20 minutes before realizing it was right in front of them, exactly where they had seen it before. “I was really angry,” Dr. Hanlon said. “They still fool me, even though I think I know what I’m looking at.”

    In recent years, Dr. Hanlon has been spending much of his time diving along southern Australia, where a colleague discovered the only major spawning grounds for cuttlefish ever found. Every year, hundreds of thousands of Australian giant cuttlefish gather there to mate and lay eggs. “I’d been searching for a place like that for 25 years,” he said. “The first time I stuck my head in the water, I said, ‘I’ve died and gone to cuttlefish heaven.’ ”

    In his cuttlefish heaven, Dr. Hanlon has discovered new dimensions to camouflage. Curious to observe the animals at night, he and his colleagues used an underwater robot to film them in dim red light. The footage revealed something never seen before, cephalopods disguising themselves at night.

    “This was stunning to us,” Dr. Hanlon said. “They were perfectly camouflaged no matter where they were.”

    Evidently, they have to hide even in darkness from dolphins and other predators.

    Cuttlefish can also use camouflage to deceive other cuttlefish, Dr. Hanlon and his colleagues have found. A male cuttlefish will typically guard several females from other challengers. He does not often have physical fights. It is enough for him to put on a powerful visual display.

    But if another male disguises its skin to look female, he can sneak up to the guarded female and mate. The sneaky male’s disguise may be so good that the other male may try to guard him as part of his harem.

    Beyond documenting the varieties of camouflage, Dr. Hanlon also wants to understand how the animals produce them. At his lab, he studies the powerful visual system of cuttlefish. Cephalopods have huge eyes, and much of their brain is dedicated to processing visual information. They use this information to control their disguises through a dense network of nerves running from the brain to the skin.

    The animals use a number of strategies to alter appearances. The skin layers can swell and contract, changing the reflected colors. At the same time, the cuttlefish can also control millions of pigment-filled organs, causing them to flatten like pancakes to add patterns to their skin.

    “It’s smart skin,” Dr. Hanlon said. “It’s all wired up.”

    Edwin Thomas, an engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was so impressed by Dr. Hanlon’s work on cuttlefish skin that he decided to mimic it. Dr. Thomas and his colleagues created a thin layer of gel that changes colors when it swells with water and shrinks. “Roger’s animals can also do that,” Dr. Thomas said, “but they’re doing it without scientists involved.”

    For all the complexity of their skin, Dr. Hanlon suspects that the cephalopods also use mental shortcuts. “They don’t have time to analyze all this visual information,” he said.

    A clue to how cephalopods disguise themselves so quickly came to Dr. Hanlon when he and his colleagues reviewed thousands of images of cuttlefish, trying to sort their patterns into categories. “It finally dawned on me there aren’t dozens of camouflage patterns,” he said. “I can squeeze them into three categories.”

    One category is a uniform color. Cephalopods take on this camouflage to match a smooth-textured background. The second category consists of mottled patterns that help them hide in busier environments. Dr. Hanlon calls the third category disruptive patterning. A cuttlefish creates large blocks of light and dark on its skin. This camouflage disrupts the body outlines.

    To test this hypothesis, Dr. Hanlon and his colleagues have been giving cuttlefish carefully controlled background patterns to match, natural patterns like sand and gravel as well as artificial ones like checkerboards. The researchers film the cuttlefish and classify them with image-processing software.

    The three-category hypothesis has been holding up, Dr. Hanlon said. He illustrates it in spectacular fashion with a cuttlefish sitting on sand. If he drops a few white rocks into the water, the cuttlefish immediately inspects them and adds what looks like a white rock to its skin, disrupting its outline.

    Innes Cuthill, an expert on camouflage at the University of Bristol, called Dr. Hanlon’s research fascinating and inspiring. Dr. Cuthill agreed that cuttlefish had limits to its camouflage. “It can’t reproduce the Mona Lisa on its back,” he said.

    But he still considers it an open question how much the constraints come from cuttlefish brain wiring and how much from the limited range of backgrounds that cuttlefish encounter.

    What he learned from cephalopods may apply throughout the animal kingdom. The fact that cephalopods may need just three camouflage categories could mean that there are just a few basic ways to fool predators.

    Recently, Dr. Hanlon and students sorted through thousands of pictures of other camouflaged animals and found that they appeared to fall into the same three categories. A frog may have drab skin to blend into the drab forest floor. A bird may have mottled plumage, so that it matches the leaf and branch pattern surrounding it.

    Dr. Hanlon argues that the black and white patches on a giant panda are a form of disruptive camouflage. If a panda is up in a tree, the chunks of black and white blend into the sunlight and shadows. It may be able to hide on a snowy landscape this way, as well.

    Cephalopods are singular for changing quickly among all three categories. Chameleons can change between them, too, but they shift slowly, as hormones spread across their skin.

    Dr. Hanlon is looking for more evidence for his three categories by figuring out the rules that cuttlefish use to decide how to hide themselves. Although he says he has found some rules, there is much to figure out.

    To use disruptive patterning, cuttlefish need to make sure that their color blocks are on the same scale as the objects around them. Dr. Hanlon has yet to figure out how they measure that.

    “They’re doing it in some magical way we don’t yet understand,” he said.

    Dr. Hanlon and his colleagues are also puzzled by the many camouflage colors of the cuttlefish, which have a single type of pigment in their eyes. Humans have three.

    Experiments in Dr. Hanlon’s lab have shown that they are color blind. They see a world without color, but their skin changes rapidly to any hue in the rainbow. How is that possible?

    “That’s a vexing question,” he said. “We don’t know how it works.”
    Quote Originally Posted by efrain44 View Post
    Anyone know who the guy in the Cardinals jersey is? I've seen him in pictures on the board and I thought I saw him this year.

  7. #67
    Member theburiedlife's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Self-healing rubber bounces back

    By Roland Pease
    BBC Radio Science Unit


    Self-repairing material (Ludwik Leibler)

    The material in action
    A material that is able to self-repair even when it is sliced in two has been invented by French researchers.

    The as-yet-unnamed material - a form of artificial rubber - is made from vegetable oil and a component of urine.

    The substance, described in the journal Nature, produces surfaces when cut that retain a strong chemical attraction to each other.

    Pieces of the material join together again as if never parted without the need for glue or a special treatment.

    This remarkable property comes from careful engineering of the molecules in the material.

    The French researchers are already making kilogramme quantities in their Paris laboratories and say the process is almost completely green, and could be completely so with a few adjustments.

    'Tiny hands'

    The secret of the substance lies in how the molecules are held together.

    A piece of normal rubber, says Dr Ludwik Leibler, who headed the research, is actually a single molecule with billion upon billions of smaller units chemically welded together to form a giant tangled network.


    Children are always breaking their toys. Wouldn't it be nice if you could put them back together so easily?
    Ludwik Leibler
    The elasticity comes from the fact that the strands within the network are buckled like a concertina: pull on them and they straighten and elongate; let go and the buckles reappear.

    But break a rubber (or most other solids), and the chemical welds - known as covalent bonds - are also broken.

    These cannot be remade. Nor can a piece of rubber be remoulded or reshaped.

    "We wanted to see if we could make a rubber-like material using small molecules," Dr Leibler of the Industrial Physics and Chemistry Higher Educational Institution (ESPCI) in Paris told the BBC's Science In Action programme.

    The trick was to replace the covalent bonds in rubber with weaker connections known as hydrogen bonds.

    These are like hands on neighbouring molecules that can clasp together, but let go when broken.

    Dr Leibler quickly realised that this meant not only that the new rubber could be recycled and remoulded many times over, but that if separated by a cut or break, the chemical hands at the fresh surfaces would still be waving about ready to bind again.

    Child's play

    François Tournilhac, who runs Dr Leibler's laboratories, demonstrated the healing to me.

    Using a razor blade he severed a thin strand of the yellowish material (the colour of corn oil), showed me the clean square faces, and then pressed them together.

    Almost immediately, the grip was strong enough for him to hold the sample just at one end.

    Within an hour the bonds had rebuilt themselves so thoroughly that it was possible to stretch the strand to twice its length without any sign of weakness where the cut had been made.

    One obvious use, says Dr Leibler, is for self-healing seals.

    Puncture a seal in a compression joint with a nail, and the hole would automatically repair itself.

    He also has more playful suggestions.

    "Why not use it to make children's toys? Children are always breaking their toys. Wouldn't it be nice if you could put them back together so easily?"

    The material was developed with the support of the French company Arkema, which is already investigating whether it can be turned into a commercial product.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7254939.stm
    Quote Originally Posted by TeamCoachellaHellYeah View Post
    this is fantastic news...we can all fist ourselves in peace now...
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  8. #68
    LOLocaust Survivor Hannahrain's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    That is so cool and amazing. Good find.

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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Quote Originally Posted by Hannahrain View Post
    That is so cool and amazing. Good find.
    Isn't it?

    Think about it, maybe even CD's or Vynils in the future will be able to repair damage (like scratches) to their surfaces.





    The nerd in me is most excited about this one.

    Virtuality and reality 'to merge'

    By Darren Waters
    Technology editor, BBC News website, in San Francisco


    Ray Kurzweil

    Ray Kurzweil is a celebrated inventor and futurologist

    Computers the size of blood cells will create fully immersive virtual realities by 2033, leading inventor Ray Kurzweil has predicted.

    Exponential growth in processing power and the shrinking of technology would see the development of microscopic computers, he said.

    "We will see a billion-fold increase in the price-performance of computers in the next 25 years," he said.

    "Virtual will compete with reality," he told the Game Developers Conference.

    Pea-sized computer

    Mr Kurzweil said it was possible to accurately predict the growth and change in computing power by looking at how it had developed over the last 50 years.

    "There will be a 100,000-fold shrinking of computer technology over the next 25 years," he said.

    "Today you can put a pea-sized computer inside your brain, if you have Parkinson's disease and want to replace the biological neurons that were destroyed by the disease."

    He said a billion-fold increase in computing performance and capability over the next 25 years coupled with the 100,000 fold shrinking, would lead to "blood cell-size devices... that can go inside our bodies and keep us healthy and inside our brain and expand our intelligence".

    He said the blood cell computers would be able to "produce full immersion virtual reality from inside the nervous system".


    Second Life screen shot
    People have more freedom in virtual worlds

    He said the games industry had to be thinking about the future development of computing now.

    "The games industry fits in well with the acceleration of progress; in no other industry do you feel that more than games."

    Mr Kurzweil, who invented the flat bed scanner and text-to-speech synthesis, said the virtual world was a misnomer.

    "In virtual worlds we do real romance, real learning, real business. Virtual reality is real reality "

    He added: "Games are the cutting edge of what is happening - we are going to spend more of our time in virtual reality environments.

    "Fully emergent games is really where we want to go. We will do most of our learning through these massively parallel interactions."

    "Play is how we principally learn and principally create," he said.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7258105.stm
    Quote Originally Posted by TeamCoachellaHellYeah View Post
    this is fantastic news...we can all fist ourselves in peace now...
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I have read a lot about that. I love transhumanism. It is so fascinating.
    RAPE STOVE

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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I cant imagine the effect hallucinogens would have on this technology, I don't want to.
    Quote Originally Posted by TeamCoachellaHellYeah View Post
    this is fantastic news...we can all fist ourselves in peace now...
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  12. #72
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Exponential growth in processing power and the shrinking of technology would see the development of microscopic computers, he said.
    I love thinking about this. How exponential growth of technology is theorhetically going to take over the universe. Barring any major catastrophes we are eventually going to have to stop the expansion of the universe. Fuck, why did I stop smoking weed?
    RAPE STOVE

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  13. #73
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    This is becoming the sci-fi thread. I like it. Now I want news about humans colonizing Mars next, k?
    Quote Originally Posted by guedita View Post
    Because fucking millenials that's what

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    This is disturbing


    Details of US microwave-weapon tests revealed
    NewScientist.com news service
    David Hambling

    VOLUNTEERS taking part in tests of the Pentagon's "less-lethal" microwave weapon were banned from wearing glasses or contact lenses due to safety fears. The precautions raise concerns about how safe the Active Denial System (ADS) weapon would be if used in real crowd-control situations.

    The ADS fires a 95-gigahertz microwave beam, which is supposed to heat skin and to cause pain but no physical damage (New Scientist, 27 October 2001, p 26). Little information about its effects has been released, but details of tests in 2003 and 2004 were revealed after Edward Hammond, director of the US Sunshine Project - an organisation campaigning against the use of biological and non-lethal weapons - requested them under the Freedom of Information Act.

    The tests were carried out at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two experiments tested pain tolerance levels, while in a third, a "limited military utility assessment", volunteers played the part of rioters or intruders and the ADS was used to drive them away.

    The experimenters banned glasses and contact lenses to prevent possible eye damage to the subjects, and in the second and third tests removed any metallic objects such as coins and keys to stop hot spots being created on the skin. They also checked the volunteers' clothes for certain seams, buttons and zips which might also cause hot spots.

    The ADS weapon's beam causes pain within 2 to 3 seconds and it becomes intolerable after less than 5 seconds. People's reflex responses to the pain is expected to force them to move out of the beam before their skin can be burnt.

    But Neil Davison, co-ordinator of the non-lethal weapons research project at the University of Bradford in the UK, says controlling the amount of radiation received may not be that simple. "How do you ensure that the dose doesn't cross the threshold for permanent damage?" he asks. "What happens if someone in a crowd is unable, for whatever reason, to move away from the beam? Does the weapon cut out to prevent overexposure?"

    During the experiments, people playing rioters put up their hands when hit and were given a 15-second cooling-down period before being targeted again. One person suffered a burn in a previous test when the beam was accidentally used on the wrong power setting.

    “What happens if someone is unable to move away from the beam?”A vehicle-mounted version of ADS called Sheriff could be in service in Iraq in 2006 according to the Department of Defense, and it is also being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for use in defending nuclear facilities. The US marines and police are both working on portable versions, and the US air force is building a system for controlling riots

  15. #75
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    If science is soo good then why have The Smiths not reunited for coachella, it would be the first thing to fix if I were science, and yes science is a person... Its like how all mathematics is written down in "The Book"
    Your books must be in Lajoya... Goodbye

  16. #76
    Dick Nicewonger kreutz2112's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by amyzzz View Post
    This is becoming the sci-fi thread. I like it. Now I want news about humans colonizing Mars next, k?
    zzz, not one post has been fiction. These are all legitimate scientific theories. Even the transhumanism one.

    Edit:

    Quote Originally Posted by Crackerfromcrenshaw View Post
    If science is soo good then why have The Smiths not reunited for coachella, it would be the first thing to fix if I were science, and yes science is a person... Its like how all mathematics is written down in "The Book"
    You're a dumbfuck.
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    white power?!

  17. #77
    Young blood
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    Go along with early articles relating to nanotech.

    I.B.M. Hits Milestone in Nanotechnology

    Hitting a major milestone in nanotechnology, IBM researchers have figured out how to measure the amount of force needed to move an atom.


    And that information could enable scientists to more easily - and quickly - develop nanoscale devices like atomic-level storage and computer chips.

    "IBM has been involved in atomic manipulation for 20 years," said Andreas Heinrich, a researcher and project leader at IBM. "What we have now is a way to quantify why we can move certain things, because now we know the forces involved. It's going from a trial-and-error stage to a more systematic way of doing things. It will be easier to build stuff once you have this knowledge."

    Heinrich noted that in 1989 IBM Fellow Don Eigler showed off the ability to manipulate individual atoms with atomic-scale precision. Now about 20 years later, Heinrich and Markus Ternes, a post doctoral scientist at IBM, worked with scientists at the University of Regensburg to devise a way to calculate the force needed to manipulate those individual atoms.

    Understanding the force required to move an atom is key to nanotechnology, according to Ternes. He explained that it's like engineers figuring out how to build a bridge over a large river. They both need to understand the strength of the different materials. How much force would it take to make a piece of metal bend? How much force would it take to move a cobalt atom over a copper surface? They're similar questions that all need to be answered in order to build a bridge or a nanoscale storage device.

    "It's increased our understanding of how nature works," said Ternes. "If you want to construct something, you have to know what the maximum load [is that] you can put on something before it breaks. Interactions and how easily things can move is important if you want to start talking about construction on a nanoscale."

    To make the microscopic measurements, the scientists modified a scanning tunneling microscope, which normally is used to view images as small as single atoms. By mounting a needle on the microscope, the scientists can measure the motion of the needle when it moves the atom.

    With this device, Ternes said they've discovered that it takes 210 piconewtons to move a cobalt atom over a platinum surface, but it takes 17 piconewtons to move a cobalt atom over a copper surface. Named after Sir Isaac Newton, a piconewton is about the force needed to hold a glass of wine in your hand, according to Ternes. To move that one cobalt atom, it would take about a millionth of a millionth of the force needed to hold that glass of wine.

    Heinrich said that now that they can make these kinds of measurements, they plan on moving forward with their work to store data on just a few atoms.

    "We have been able to shrink the silicon on our chips down. That's been the great facilitator to get faster computers and more data storage, but we all know that's not going to go on forever," Heinrich added. "There will be a break at some point. What we do in our lab is take the opposite approach and start with the smallest thing single atoms and build data storage devices one atom at a time. This particular work will allow us to know what we can build and why we can build those things."

    Their new measurement capabilities also will allow researchers to shrink the size of transistors that are used in computer chips. Shrinking transistors cuts power requirements, boosts speed and requires less power. Some researchers consider the transistor to be the single most important invention of the 20th century.

    And analysts expect the transistor to continue to drive digital products forward into the future. Intel's latest 45nm Penryn processor holds 820 million transistors. Risto Puhakka, president of VLSI Research Inc., said he expects that within 10 to 15 years, semiconductor companies will be squeezing 10 billion to 15 billion onto a single chip.

  18. #78
    Dick Nicewonger kreutz2112's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    This paragraph does not make sense to me...or I am just trippin. It seems like there should be more force involved in holding a wine glass??? According to that paragraph it takes 210 times more force to move a cobalt atom over platinum than it does to hold a wine glass...yet the last sentence states differently.

    Quote Originally Posted by Young blood View Post
    With this device, Ternes said they've discovered that it takes 210 piconewtons to move a cobalt atom over a platinum surface, but it takes 17 piconewtons to move a cobalt atom over a copper surface. Named after Sir Isaac Newton, a piconewton is about the force needed to hold a glass of wine in your hand, according to Ternes. To move that one cobalt atom, it would take about a millionth of a millionth of the force needed to hold that glass of wine.
    Last edited by kreutz2112; 02-22-2008 at 07:12 AM.
    RAPE STOVE

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  19. #79
    LOLocaust Survivor Hannahrain's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Quote Originally Posted by kreutz2112 View Post
    This paragraph does not make sense to me...or I am just trippin. It seems like there should be more force involved in holding a wine glass??? According to that paragraph it takes 210 times more force to move a cobalt atom over platinum than it does to hold a wine glass...yet the last sentence states differently.
    Yeah, it doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Especially when you think about how they say that a newton is about equivalent to the earth's gravity force on an apple. I'm willing to accept that it's a typo and should have said newton, but only if it makes sense to more than just me. I haven't looked into it at all and could be completely wrong. Seems like a glass of wine bears down on your hand about the same as an apple, though.

  20. #80
    Young blood
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I think it is saying it takes concentrated and focused applied force. Its on such a small scale where as with a wine glass the force is distributed on a much larger scale.

  21. #81
    Dick Nicewonger kreutz2112's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I think it was a typo. However, the forces he's talking about are completely different (gravitational force vs. some sort of applied force). How exactly is the needle moving the atom? Is it physically contacting the nucleus of the atom and pushing it along the surface, or is it using say...a negatively charged force from the needle to push a positively charged cobalt ion across the surface (ie some electromagnetic force)?
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  22. #82
    LOLocaust Survivor Hannahrain's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I think they're probably berating it so it pushes the scientists away. The atom is actually staying in the same place.

  23. #83
    Young blood
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I have no fuckin idea but I think it has to do with this.

    Force spectroscopy

    Molecules adsorbed on a surface are picked up by a microscopic tip (nanometres wide) that is located on the end of an elastic cantilever. In a more sophisticated version of this experiment (Chemical Force Microscopy) the tips are covalently functionalized with the molecules of interest. A piezoelectric controller then pulls up the cantilever. If some force is acting on the elastic cantilever (for example because some molecule is being stretched between the surface and the tip), this will deflect upward (repulsive force) or downward (attractive force). According to Hooke's law, this deflection will be proportional to the force acting on the cantilever. Deflection is measured by the position of a laser beam reflected by the cantilever. This kind of set-up can measure forces as low as 10 pN (10-11 N), and cannot achieve much better resolution only because of thermal noise. The so-called force curveis the graph of force (or more precisely, of cantilever deflection) versus the piezoelectric position on the Z axis. An ideal Hookian spring, for example, would display a straight diagonal force curve. Typically, the force curves observed in the force spectroscopy experiments consist of a contact (diagonal) region where the probe contacts the sample surface, and a non-contact region where the probe is off the sample surface. When the restoring force of the cantilever exceeds tip-sample adhesion force the probe jumps out of contact, and the magnitude of this jump is often used as a measure of adhesion force or rupture force. In general the rupture of a tip-surface bond is a stochastic process; therefore reliable quantification of the adhesion force requires taking multiple individual force curves. The histogram of the adhesion forces obtained in these multiple measurements provides the main data output for force spectroscopy measurement.

    Quite often researchers repeat the measurements as a function of the bond loading rate. The resulting graph of the average rupture force as a function of the loading rate is called the force spectrum and forms the basic dataset for the dynamic force spectroscopy. In the ideal case of a single sharp energy barrier for the tip-sample interactions the dynamic force spectrum will show a linear increase of the rupture force as function of a logarithm of the loading rate. The slope of the line is equal to the \frac{k_BT}{x_\beta}, where xβ is the distance from the energy minimum to the transition state.

    [edit] Optical tweezers

    Another technique that has been gaining ground for single molecule experiments is the use of optical tweezers for applying mechanical forces on molecules. A strongly focused laser beam has the ability to catch and hold particles (of dielectric material) in a size range from nanometers to micrometers. The trapping action of optical tweezers results from the dipole or optical gradient force on the dielectric sphere. The technique of using a focused laser beam as an atom trap was first applied in 1984 at Bell laboratories. Until then experiments had been carried out using oppositely directed lasers as a means to trap particles. Later experiments, at the same project at Bell laboratories and others since, showed damage-free manipulation on cells using an infrared laser. Thus, the ground was made for biological experiments with optical trapping.

    Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, AFM cantilevers, can measure angstrom-scale, millisecond events and forces larger than 10 pN. While glass microfibers cannot achieve such fine spatial and temporal resolution, they can measure piconewton forces. Optical tweezers allow the measurement of piconewton forces and nanometer displacements which is an ideal range for many biological experiments. Magnetic tweezers can measure femtonewton forces, and additionally they can also be used to apply torsion.

  24. #84
    Dick Nicewonger kreutz2112's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    awwww...the science thread.
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  25. #85
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    SURI Cruise seemingly has the strangest life of any two-year-old toddler.

    She's not even two-years-old yet, but her parents treat her like an adult, according to a report in Star magazine.

    The mag's website says her parents Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes treat her as an adult as Scientologists, they believe their daughter has lived for billions of years and so she already knows all there is to know.

    Their daughter does not even go to bed until 11pm, and Suri has hardly any discipline. But there are still some rules.

    Tom forbids television and because of anti-Scientology sites, when she is old enough, her computer use will be very limited.

    "The internet has become a major source of problems for Scientology," cult expert Rick Ross tells Star.

    When it comes to education, Suri will follow Tom's other kids, Isabella and Connor and be schooled in the controversial church.

    McDonalds is out, her diet is organic, with boiled barley juice one of its major ingredients. Her health is maintained not with medicine, but by herbs.

    Her friends are virtually all the children of fellow Scientology believers.

    Star has full the full story on Suri's life and the "special gift " Tom has arranged for her in this week's US issue.
    ...
    Quote Originally Posted by efrain44 View Post
    Anyone know who the guy in the Cardinals jersey is? I've seen him in pictures on the board and I thought I saw him this year.

  26. #86
    Young blood
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    I think they knew they fucked up here is the new story same source.

    I.B.M. scientists have measured the force needed to nudge one atom.
    Skip to next paragraph
    Related
    Scientists Shrink Computing to Molecular Level October 25, 2002
    2 Researchers Spell 'I.B.M.,' Atom by Atom April 5, 1990
    Web Link
    The Force Needed to Move an Atom on a Surface (Science)
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    IBM

    The tuning fork in the atomic force microscope, which measures the interaction between the tip and the atom.

    About one-130-millionth of an ounce of force pushes a cobalt atom across a smooth, flat piece of platinum.

    Pushing the same atom along a copper surface is easier, just one-1,600-millionth of an ounce of force.

    The scientists report these minuscule findings in Friday’s issue of the journal Science.

    I.B.M. scientists have been pushing atoms around for some time, since Donald M. Eigler of the company’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose, Calif., spelled “IBM” using 35 xenon atoms in 1989. Since then, researchers at the company have continued to explore how they might be able to construct structures and electronic components out of individual atoms.

    Knowing the precise forces required to move atoms “helps us to understand what is possible and what is not possible,” said Andreas J. Heinrich, a physicist at Almaden and an author of the new Science paper. “It’s a stepping stone for us, but it’s by no means the end goal.”

    In the experiment, Dr. Heinrich and his collaborators at Almaden and the University of Regensburg in Germany used the sharp tip of an atomic force microscope to push a single atom. To measure the force, the tip was attached to a small tuning fork, the same kind that is found in a quartz wristwatch. In fact, in the first prototype, Franz J. Giessibl, a scientist at Regensburg who was a pioneer in the use of atomic force microscopes, bought an inexpensive watch and pulled out the quartz tuning fork for use in the experiment.

    The tip vibrates 20,000 times a second until it comes into contact with an atom. As the tip pushes, the tuning fork bends, like a diving board, and the vibration frequency dips.

    A single atom does not roll, and even a perfectly smooth surface is not perfectly smooth. Instead, the atom rests in small indentations in the lattice, in effect like an egg in an egg carton. The resistance — what becomes friction when multiplied by millions and billions of atoms — comes from the energy needed to rearrange the bonds between the cobalt atom and surface.

    When the tip pushes hard enough, the atom hops, almost instantaneously to the next indentation. “It’s not smooth,” said Markus Ternes, another Almaden scientist working on the research. “It’s faster than we can detect.”

    From the changes in the frequency of the tuning fork vibrations, the scientists calculated the force that the tip applied to the cobalt atom.

    Copper is less sticky than platinum, because of differences between the underlying bonds, and hence allowed the greater ease is pushing the cobalt atom along.

  27. #87
    zeezus amyzzz's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Quote Originally Posted by kreutz2112 View Post
    zzz, not one post has been fiction. These are all legitimate scientific theories. Even the transhumanism one.

    Edit:



    You're a dumbfuck.
    I know the stories are true. I'm saying it's like sci-fi stories I have read which is pretty freaky. I'm not a dumbfuck.
    Quote Originally Posted by guedita View Post
    Because fucking millenials that's what

  28. #88
    LOLocaust Survivor Hannahrain's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Hey guys?






    I love this thread.

  29. #89
    zeezus amyzzz's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    Quote Originally Posted by guedita View Post
    Because fucking millenials that's what

  30. #90
    Dick Nicewonger kreutz2112's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Science/Science News Thread.

    zzz, I wasn't calling you a dumbfuck I was calling that other douche a dumbfuck.
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